Much research has been dedicated to exploiting the waves and oscillations of electrons that are produced on the surface of a metallic structure when photons of light strike it. These waves of electrons are called either surface plasmons when referring to the oscillations in charge alone, or surface plasmon polaritons when referring to both the charge oscillations and the electromagnetic wave. The field developed around exploiting this phenomenon has become known as plasmonics.
Plasmonics has made all sorts of interesting things possible, such as confining wavelengths of light to design smaller photonic devices. However, there has been no good way to turn the waves “on” and “off” rapidly.
Now researchers at the University of Regensburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from Istituto Nanoscienze–CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa, Italy, have demonstrated the ability to selectively choose between an “on” state, where surface polaritons can be excited and propagate across the sample, and an “off” state, where no polaritons are present.
So what is the trick to achieving these “on/off” states? Don’t use a metal at all. Instead, employ the two-dimensional material du jour: black phosphorus.