Digital logic depends on bits. The binary states of “0” or “1” form the basis of computing. In quantum computers, the bit is replaced by something called a quantum bit (or, qubit), which is an atomic particle that can be coerced into being both 0 and 1 simultaneously, at least for a time.
But one of the problems for quantum computing has been how to get restless atomic particles, like electrons, to sit down together in large groups long enough so that they can be used to carry out calculations.
Researchers at MIT and Harvard University have devised a way to capture atomic particles using optical “tweezers” and hold them in place long enough to take a picture of them so that their locations can be determined and lasers can be directed at them based on that information. Optical tweezers—more formally known as “single-beam gradient force traps”—have been a key instrument in manipulating matter in biology and quantum optic applications since Bell Labs first described that instrument in 1986.