Quantum physicists are now laying the groundwork for a “quantum bus,” which can teleport quantum information between the memory and processor components of future quantum computers.
Classical computers switch transistors between one state or another to symbolize data as ones and zeros. Quantum computers use quantum bits or qubits that, because of the surreal nature of quantum mechanics, can be in a state of superposition where they can essentially behave as both one and zero.
The superpositions that qubits adopt let them hold two states at once. If two qubits are quantum-mechanically linked, or entangled, they can hold four states simultaneously; three qubits, eight states; and so on. In theory, a quantum computer with 300 qubits could hold more states than there are atoms in the visible universe. Algorithms can use such entangled qubits to run an extraordinary amount of calculations in an instant.